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Computer Network Topology

Posted by Kamar Pekick on Saturday, 13 May 2017

Hardware required
The hardware needed to build a computer network, namely: computers, Network Cards, Hubs, and all things related to network connections such as: printers, Scanners, CDROMS, Bridges, Routers, and others required for the process of transformation
data in the network.
1. File Servers
2. Workstations
3. Network Interface Cards
4. the Concentrators/Hubs
5. Repeaters
6. Bridges
7. Routers

File Servers
A file server is the heart of computer networks, plumpness is a very fast, has a great memory, a hard disk that has a large capacity, fast network card. Network operating system is stored here, also including a few applications and the data required for the network.

A file server is in charge of controlling the communication and information between the node/component in a network. For example managing the delivery of word processing or database file from workstation or one of the nodes, to the other node, or receiving emails at the same time with other tasks, the task to see that the file server is very complex, he should also store information and share it quickly. So at least a file server has a number of characters like these below:
·         Processor of at least 166 megahertz or faster processor (Pentium Pro, Pentium II, PowerPC).
·         A hard drive that is faster and more or less large-capacity 10 GB
·         A RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks).
·         A tape to back up the data (for example. Dat, JAZ, Zip, or CDRW)
·         Have many port network
·         Cards and fast network Reliability
·         Approximately 32 MB memory

Overall computer connected to a file server in the network are referred to as workstations. A workstation at least have: a network card, network application (software network), a cable for connecting to a network, usually a workstation not so need a Floppy because the data that you want to save can and can be placed on the file server. Almost any type of computer can be used as a computer workstation.

Network Interface Cards (NIC) or network card
Network card (NIC) is a device that provides a medium for connecting computers, most network cards are cards of internal, i.e. a network card that is installed in the expansion slot in the computer.
Some computers such as the MAC computer, using a special box that plugged into a serial port or SCSI port of the computer. On notebook computers there is a slot for a network card that is commonly called a PCMCIA slot.
A network card that is widely used today are: network card Ethernet, LocalTalk connectors, and Token Ring network cards. The currently popular used is Ethernet, then followed by the Token Ring, LocalTalk, and

Ethernet Card/Ethernet Network Card
Ethernet network card typically purchased with separate computer, except as a Macintosh computer which already include an ethernet network card in it. ethernet network cards generally have provided port connection for coaxial cable or twisted pair cable, if designed for coaxial cable BNC is connector, and if designed for twisted pair cable will then have a RJ-45 connector.
Several ethernet network card sometimes also . AUI connector got. It was all in connections with coaxial, twisted pair, or with optical fiber cables.

LocalTalk Connectors/LocalTalk Connector
LocalTalk is a network card create a macintosh computer, using a special adapter box and cables are attached to the Port for the printer. Lack of LocalTalk Ethernet is compared to the speed of the data transfer rate, the Ethernet computer network of bi is not new at this time. In almost every company there are computer networks to facilitate the flow of information in the change.

The Internet that became popular at the moment is a giant computer network is a network of computer networks that engaged and can mutually interact. This can occur due to the development of the network technology that very rapidly, so that within a few years the number of users of computer networks, the Internet doubled.; can be up to 10 Mbps, while the LocalTalk can only operate at a speed of 230 Kbps or equivalent to 0.23 Mbps

Token Ring Cards
Token Ring network card looks almost identical to an Ethernet network card. One difference is the type of connectors on back of card, Token Ring networks generally have type connector 9 Pin DIN Cable to connect the network card to the Network.

A Concentrator/Hub is a device that unifies network cables from each workstation, server or other device. In Star topology, twisted pair cable coming from a workstation to the hub. The hub has a lot of slots concentrator which can be mounted according to the port number of the destination card.
The traits that owned Concentrators are:
·         Usually consists of 8, 12, or 24 port RJ-45
·         Used on the star topology/Star
·         Usually on sale with special applications i.e. applications that organize managing the port.
·         Usually called the hub
·         Usually in pairs on a special shelf, which there are Bridges, routers

The easiest example is on a LAN using a Star topology using  unshielded twisted pair cable. Where known maximum length for a twisted pair cable unshileded is 100 meters, so to strengthen the signal from the cable installed a repeater at the network.

Is a device which divides a network into two pieces of fruit tissues, is used to get an efficient network, where at times the growth of the network very quickly so in need of a bridge for it. Most of the Bridges can know each address of every computer on a network segment next to it and also on the other chain next to it anyway. Likened to that of these Bridges as traffic police who set up at the intersection at the time of rush-hour. He arranged for information between the two sides of the network remains the road properly and regularly. Bridges can also be use to connect between the network that uses a different type of cable or topology.

Information defines a Router from one network to another network, he is almost the same as the Bridge but rather a clever little, the router will search for the best path to send a message to the above address and destination address of origin.

While Bridges can find out the address of each computer in the each side of the network, the router address computer, bridges and routers other routers can know. the overall network viewing which side the most busy and he can pull data from a busy side until the side of the net.

If a company has a LAN and want to connect to The Internet, they had to buy a router. This means that a router can translate information between your LAN and the Internet. This also means finding an alternative path the best to send the data passes through the internet. Means that the Router:
·         Signal pathways in regulating disappear
·         Set the Message between the two protocol
·         Organize your messages between the network topology of linear Bus and Star (star)
·         Set the Message passing between Cable Fiber optic cable, twisted pair

Topology/Shape Network
The topology of a network connecting a number of ways based on the node or central in the form of a network system. Network topology that is commonly used is: Mess, Star (Star), Bus, Tree, and a ring (Ring).

Types Of Network Topology
a Mesh network topology.
This network topology implemented the Central relationships in full. The number of channels should be provided to form a Mesh network is the Central number minus 1 (n-1, n = the number of Central). The level of complexity of a network is proportional to the rising number of centrally mounted. Thus, besides the less economical it is also relatively expensive to operate.

b. the star network topology (Star)
In a star network topology, one of the Central created as central Center. When compared with the mesh system, this system has a level of complexity that simpler networks so that the system becomes more economical, but the burden shouldered fairly heavy Center Central. Thus the possibility of the level of damage or disruption of the Central is larger.

c. the star Bus network topology
In this topology, all centrally connected directly on transmission medium with a configuration called a Bus. Transmission of signals from a central does not streamed simultaneously in two directions. It is different with that occurs in mesh network topology or stars, which in the two systems can be made to communications or interconnection between central simultaneously. bus network topology is not commonly used for interconnection between Central, but it is usually used in a computer network system.

d. the network topology tree (Tree)
This network topology is also called as multilevel network topology. This topology is typically used for interconnection between Central and a different hierarchy. To the lower hierarchy is described on the site are low and getting over having the higher hierarchy. This type of network topology is suitable in computer network systems.

e. network topology ring (Ring)
To form a network of rings, each with a central series must be connected with one another and this relationship will form a closed loop. In this system the Central must be designed so that each can interact with the adjacent central or far apart. Thus the ability of doing the switching to different directions. The advantages of this network topology include: low levels of network complexity (simple), also when there is disturbance or damage to a central traffic flow can then be passed on to another direction in the system. The most widely used in the computer network is a network of buses and a tree (tree), it is for reasons of complexity, ease of installation and maintenance as well as the price to be paid. But only the network type of trees (tree) only the recognized reliability because of the breakdown in one of the wires on the client, the client relations will not affect the other.

Studying From:  IlmuKomputer.Com
1. http://www.ai3.itb.ac.id/Tutorial/LAN.html
2. http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40
3. http://sunsite.ui.ac.id/student/ristek/sig/infosys/artikel/artikel3/protokol1.htm
Sebuah workstation minimal mempunyai : Kartu jaringan, Aplikasi jaringan (sofware jaringan), kabel untuk menghubungkan ke jaringan, biasanya sebuah workstation tidak begitu membutuhkan Floppy karena data yang ingin di simpan bisa dan dapat diletakkan di file server.

Thanks for reading & sharing Kamar Pekick

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