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Computer network

Posted by Kamar Pekick on Saturday, 13 May 2017

A computer network is a collection of computers, printers and other equipment connected. Information and data moving through wires, allowing network users to computer can exchange data and documents, printing on the printer, and shared the same using hardware/software that is connected to the network.

Each of the computers, printers or peripherals that are connected to the network node . A computer network can have two, tens, thousands or even millions of nodes. A network usually consists of two or more interconnected computers among one another, and share resources such as CDROM, Printer, file exchange, or allow it to communicate with each other electronically. Computers connected to these, it is possible to connect with the media cable, telephone lines, radio waves, satellite, or infra red.

2. The types of network
There are 3 types of Networks/Network:
a. Local Area Network (LAN) Local Area/Network.
A LAN, the network is limited by the relatively small area, generally limited by the environmental area such as an office space in a building, or a school, and are usually not far from about 1 square km.

Some model configuration LAN, one computer is usually in a file server . Which is used to store the software (software) which regulates the activities of the network, or as software that can be used by computer to computer that is connected into the network. Computers connected to the network (thenetwork) it is usually referred to as workstations.

Usually the ability workstation more below from the file server and has another application in the hard disk in addition to the application to the network. Most LAN using media cables to connect to one computer with another computer.

b. the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Metropolitan area network/
A MAN, usually covering an area larger than a LAN, for example between regions within a province. In this network connects several small networks into a larger area of the environment, for example: Tissue Bank where several branch offices of a Bank in a huge city connected between one another.

c. Wide Area Network (WAN)/large scale area network
Wide Area Networks (WAN) is a network that is in scope is usually already use Satellite or cable means under the sea as an example of a whole network of BANK BNI that existed in Indonesia or that exist in other countries.
Use means of WAN, a Bank that is in the Bandung Branch Office can contact that exists in Hong Kong, in just a few minutes.
WAN is usually somewhat complicated and very complex, using plenty of means for connecting between LAN and WAN into a Global communications such as the Internet. But somehow between the LAN, MAN and WAN is not much different in some ways, just the scope of the areas are different among others.

3. The Protocol
Protocols are the rules governing communication between the main multiple computers on a network, it includes instructions that apply to the ways or methods to access a network, physical topology, cable types and the speed of data transfer. Protocol-the Protocol that are known are as follows:
1. Ethernet
2. Local Talk
3. Token Ring
4. the FDDI
5. ATM

Ethernet
Protocol Ethernet so far is the most widely used, Ethernet access method CSMA/CD called (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection) . This system explained that each computer notice into the cable from the network before sending anything into it. If there is no activity in the network or the computer will NET transmits data, if there is another cable in transmission, the computer will wait and will retry the transmission if the network has been clean. Sometimes the two computers perform a transmission at the same time, when
This is the case, each computer will be back and will wait for a random chance to transmit the data back. This method is known
with the Coalition, and will have no effect on the transmission speed of the network.

Ethernet protocols can be used to model a network of straight lines, stars, or a tree. Data can be transmitted past the twisted pair, coaxial cable, or fiber optic cable at a speed of 10 Mbps.
LocalTalk
LocalTalk is a network protocol developed by Apple Computer, Inc. for the machines and Macintosh computers. The methods used by LocalTalk is CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance). Similar to CSMA/CD. LocalTalk adapters and special cable twisted pair can be used to connect several computers passes through the serial port. Macintosh operating systems allow the connection in peer-to-peer networks without the need for additional application-specific Protocol LocalTalk network model can be used for straight lines, stars, or the model Tree by using a twisted pair cable.
The most glaring deficiencies, namely the speed of transmission. Speed
transmission only 230 Kbps.

Token Ring
Token protocol developed by IBM in the mid-1980s. Method of Access through the entrance of a token in a circle like a ring. In the circle of the token, computers connected to each other like a ring. A token move Signal rotates in a circle (ring) in a network and move from a computer-heading to the next computer, if on a stopover on one of the computers turned out there is data you want to be transmitted, the token will be moved to the place where the data it wants addressed, token move on to mutually connect between each computer.
Token Ring Protocol requires a network model to use the cable twisted pair or fiber optic cables. And can do a transmission speed of 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps. In line with the development of Ethernet, Token Ring usage diminish until now.

FDDI
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) is a network protocol that connects two or more networks even at long distances. Access that method is used by the FDDI token is a model. FDDI use two physical ring topology. often transmission process using a single ring, but if there are problems found will be automatically uses the second ring.

An advantage of the FDDI is speed by using a fiber optic cable at a speed of 100 Mbps.


ATM
ATM stands for Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a network protocol that transmits at a speed of 155 Mbps or more. ATM transmits data into one package in which other protocols on transfer in the big and small package. ATM supports variations of media such as video, CD-audio, and images. The ATM model works on the star topology, using fiber optic Cable or twisted pair cable. ATM is generally used to connect two or more LANS. He is also widely used by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to increase the speed of Internet access for their clients.

The conclusion to the Protocol:

The Protocol on the
wear
The cable that
used
Speed
Transfer

Physical Topology
Ethernet
Twisted Pair, Coaxial, Fiber
10 Mbps
Linear Bus, Star, Tree
Fast Ethernet
Twisted Pair, Fiber
100 Mbps
Star
LocalTalk
Twisted Pair
0.23 Mbps
Linear Bus or Star
Token Ring
Twisted Pair
4 Mbps – 16 Mbps
Star-Wired Ring
FDDI
Fiber
100 Mbps
Dual ring
ATM
Twisted Pair, Fiber
155-2488 Mbps
Linear Bus, Star, Tree





Original
dan mempunyai aplikasi lain di dalam harddisknya selain aplikasi untuk jaringan.

Thanks for reading & sharing Kamar Pekick

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